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Nafnaþulur is a subsection of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, the last part of the Skáldskaparmál. It is a listing in verse of names that may be used in poetry for various items, such as gods, giants, people, animals, and weapons. The verses are not in all manuscripts of the Edda and appear independently, and are probably a later addition to Snorri's original composition; they may have been one of its sources. They are often omitted from editions and translations of the Edda.

Sea-Kings

1. Atli, Fróði, Áli, Glammi, Beiti, Áti, and Beimuni, Auðmundr, Guðmundr, Atall and Gestill, Geitir, Gauti, Gylfi, Sveiði.

2. Gæir, Eynefir, Gaupi and Endill, Skekkill, Ekkill, Skefill and Sölvi, Hálfr and Hemlir, Hárekr and Gorr, Hagbarðr, Haki, Hrauðnir, Meiti.

3. Hjörólfr and Hrauðungr, Högni, Mýsingr, Hundingr, Hvítingr, Heiti, Mævill, Hjálmarr, Móir, Hæmir, Mævi, Róði, Rakni, Rerr and Leifi.

4. Randver, Rökkvi, Reifnir, Leifnir, Næfill, Ræfill, Nóri, Lyngvi, Byrvill, Kilmundr, Beimi, Jórekr, Ásmundr, Þvinnill, Yngvi, Teiti.

5. Virfill, Vinnill, Vandill, Sölsi, Gautrekr and Húnn, Gjúki, Buðli, Hómarr, Hnefi, Hörvi, Sörvi. I have assembled no more sea-kings.

Giants I

6. I will make a listing of the giants; Ymir, Gangr and Mímir, Iði and Þjazi, Hrungnir, Hrímnir, Hrauðnir, Grímnir, Hveðrungr, Hafli, Hripstoðr, Gymir.

7. Hraðverkr, Hrökkvir, and Hástigi, Hræsvelgr, Herkir and Hrímgrímnir, Hymir and Hrímþurs, Hvalr, Þrígeitir, Þrymr, Þrúðgelmir, Þistilbarði.

8. Geirröðr, Fyrnir, Galarr, Þrívaldi, Fjölverkr, Geitir, Fleggr, Blapþvari, Fornjótr, Sprettingr, Fjalarr, Stígandi, Sómr and Svásuðr, Svárangr, Skrati.

9. Surtr and Stórverkr, Sækarlsmúli, Skærir, Skrýmir, Skerkir, Salfangr, Öskruðr and Svartr, Önduðr, Stúmi, Alsvartr, Aurnir, Ámr and Skalli.

10. Köttr, Ösgrúi and Alfarinn, Vindsvalr, Víparr and Vafþrúðnir, Eldr and Aurgelmir, Ægir, Rangbeinn, Vindr, Víðblindi, Vingnir, Leifi.

11. Beinviðr, Björgólfr and Brandingi, Dumbr, Bergelmir, Dofri and Miðjungr, Nati, Sökmímir. Now have all been recounted the loathsome giants’ names.

Troll-Wives

12. Of the troll-wives I shall tell the names Gríðr and Gnissa, Grýla, Brýja, Glumra, Geitla, Gríma and Bakrauf, Guma Gestilja, Grottintanna.

13. Gjálp, Hyrrokkin, Hengikefta, Gneip and Gnepja, Geysa, Hála, Hörn and Hrúga, Harðgreip, Forað, Hryggða, Hveðra and Hölgabrúðr.

14. Hrímgerðr, Hæra, Herkja, Fála, Imð, Járnsaxa, Íma, Fjölvör, Mörn, Íviðja, Ámgerðr, Simul, Sívör, Skríkja, Sveipinfalda.

15. Öflugbarða and Járnglumra, Ímgerðr, Áma and Járnviðja, Margerðr, Atla, Eisurfála, Leikn, Munnharpa and Myrkriða.

16. Leirvör, Ljóta and Loðinfingra, Kráka, Varðrún and Kjallandi, Vígglöð, Þurbörð; we will name finally Rýgi and Rifingöflu.

Thor

17. Thor is called Atli and Ásabragr, he is Ennilangr and Eindriði, Björn, Hlórriði and Harðvéorr, Vingþórr, Sönnungr, Véoðr and Rymr.

Sons of Óðinn

18. Sons of Óðinn are: Baldr and Meili, Víðarr and Nepr, Váli, Áli, Þórr and Hildólfr, Hermóðr, Sigi, Skjöldr, Yngvi-Freyr and Ítreksjóð, Heimdallr, Sæmingr, Höðr and Bragi.

Giants II

19. And here are further names of giants: Eimgeitir, Verr, Ímr, Hringvölnir, Viddi, Víðgrípr, Vandill, Gyllir, Grímnir, Glaumarr, Glámr, Sámendill.

20. Vörnir, Harðgreipr and Vagnhöfði, Kyrmir, Suttungr and Kaldgrani, Jötunn, Óglaðnir and Aurgrímnir, Gillingr, Gripnir, Gusir, Ófóti.

21. Hlói, Ganglati and Helreginn, Hrossþjófr, Durnir, Hundálfr, Baugi, Hrauðungr, Fenrir, Hróarr and Miði.

Æsir

22. Now I shall list the Æsir’s names: There are Yggr and Thor and Yngvi-Freyr, Víðarr and Baldr, Váli and Heimdallr, there are Týr and Njörðr, and next I list Bragi, Höðr, Forseti, the last here is Loki.

Goddesses

23. Now shall the goddesses all be named: Frigg and Freyja, Fulla and Snotra, Gerðr and Gefjon, Gná, Lofn, Skaði, Jörð and Iðunn, Ilmr,1 Bil, Njörun.

24. Hlín and Nanna, Hnoss, Rindr and Sjöfn, Sól and Sága, Sigyn and Vör. There is Vár, and Syn needs to be named, and Þrúðr and Rán are enumerated next after them.

25. Now, Freyja wept gold for Óðr. Names of hers are Hörn and Þrungva, Sýr, Skjalf and Gefn, and likewise Mardöll. Her daughters are Hnoss and Gersimi.

Valkyries

26. And these others are Óðin's maidens: Hildr and Göndul, Hlökk, Mist, Skögul, then are Hrund and Eir, Hrist, and Skuld listed. Those who shape need2 are known as norns; Nift and Dísi I will now name.

A Woman

27. Gentlewoman, bride, lady, proud lady, spark, woman, dame, female, sweet thing, widow, housewife, wife and sweetheart, slender lady, matron, bondswoman, haughty one and war-widow, maiden and old lady.

A Man

28. Time it is to tell the terms for men: poets and husbands, men and bachelors, stallions, yeomen, braves, males, a company, masters and landowners.

29. Heroes, thanes, stalwarts, gentry, menfolk and seamen, soldiers, holders, fellow travelers, a household, a band, hardymen, champions and men of valor, fighters, mates.

30. Population and folk and bosses, troops and hosts, the common people and hordes, the people, dandies, lions and travelers, a gentle, a noble, a great man, a sage.

31. There’s the illustrious man and the gold-giving lord, wealth-amassers and show-offs, an army and a division and chieftains, the nation and the county, the assembly, the populace.

32. Now there’s the throng and the crowd, the village, good people, the household and servants, the down-chinned, men of courage, a crew and a gathering, a garrison, dandies, beings and "brians".

33. And there are further terms for people, the bodyguard and mercenaries and housecarls, a personal army and a couple, if I list them all, confidant and buddy and counselor.

34. Housemates, staffers, bench-mate and acquaintance, fellows and followers, there are partners and kinsmen together, friend, hug-buddy, the king’s guard, men.

35. Great-grandfather and relative, grandfather, son, father, brother, twin, bro and sib, baby, child, nephew and heir, there are full-blood brothers and branches from the tree.

36. Offspring, clansman, relation and kid, gentleman and a lineage, kinsman, a line, youth, buddy, in-law and secret-sharer, clan, family line, dependent and swain.

37. Drinking buddies and brothers-in-law, progeny there are and pillar of the family, there are council-member and counsel-giver, servitors, thralls, servants, laborers, workmen, slaves3 and serfs.

Battle

38. These are the heiti: din and tumult, clangor, spear-slaughter and spear-wielding, strife and a clash, shield-violence and shield-stir, the rush and the onslaught, victory, the campaign, a fight.

39. The fray, murder and slaughter, an attack, direful enmity and terror clamor, shock, war, action and a bout; there are battle and fate’s decision, storm and pugnaciousness, army-movement, a thunderclap.

A Sword

40. I will recount the heiti for swords: blade and Hrotti, hewer, Dragvandil (draw-wand), Gróa (grower), Gram (wrath), screamer, resounding and end-scored, scythe and polisher, honor, light ray.

41. Rogue, cutter, metal, Skrýmir, Laufi (leaf), ale-glory, halbard and wormstick, leg-biter and bull and Leifnir’s ruin, war-bared, Hneitir (slicer) and sea-raked.

42. Lotti (reducer), gushmaker, stabber, seax, hand weapon, hand grip and Mistletoe, steel, throe-giver and striker and middle-decorated,4 Fetbreid (broad-track), gate-fire and life-quencher.

43. Wavy, threaded, corpse-pain and brand, man, wolf,5 slaughterer, wind-bright and torture, ash, sorrow-wader, sharp of edges, swooper and hideous darter, hall-fence, grip.

44. Inciter, head-sharp, skull-breaker, carrion-Gaut, army-shining and flesh-Mímir, wound-opener, reverser, surf-raiser, burnished, gleam, lacerator, reducer, gate-fire.

45. Mimungr and death and Speech-Witness, treasure, corpse-enclosed, crane, twist-stick, trooper, millstone-biter, beam of light, hardness, witness, ripper, barrier-breaker.

46. Mocker, pale-maker, dismisser, notcher, luckbringer, Skilfingr (trembler), polished, tearer, rupturer, whitey, Bæsingr (bastard), Tyrfingr (tarry), gobbler and hewer, and nightbringer will be found here.

47. Fire and hand-resounding, long-sharp and flame, eagle and terrorizer and Naglfari (riveted), reclaimer, Mörnir (jabber), breeze6 and diminisher, blaze and long-neck, stormy, defiler.

48. Feller, pale, Fáfnir (embracer), piercer, battler, reeking, offspring, bender, winner, polisher, swallower, cutter and dead man, Goin (merry), guest-Moin (moor-guest), mocker, thunderer, Níðhöggr (mean-striker).

49. Point, blood-band and wound-knuckles, blood interlace, bloodcasting and bloody eddy, blood opening, feinter and blood-grip, restless caster and brand, edge-strips, battle.

50. Howler, blade and Ölröð’s gift, mark, battle-edge and missed aim, fringe and shaver, under-dragger, outlaw, Kaldhamar’s gift, hilt and hard shoulder.

51. Sword and clamorer and trusty nail, clinch, victory-knob, boss and tang, grip, hew-father and middle-pierce.

An Axe

52. Axe, earth-horn and iron-blade, opener and sideways shover, cutter and hatchet, power-span, Gnepja (jutter), ogress and Fála (frightener), spiked and bulging, barbed axe and Vígglöð (battle-bright), chopper and extended, there is the wretch’s horn, this is the called the last word7 of the names of axes.

A Spear

53. Dart, spear and stinger, leaning-post, lance and javelin, swifty, pike and tirer, halberd, carrion-blade, throwing spear, shaft, borer, missile, Irish halberd, gavelock, fluke, Gungnir, Poitier shaft.

An Arrow

54. Arrow is also shaft, point, white-shot, Fenja and sleet-fall, vane, whistling shot, fletching, bale, bolt, spike and Hremsa (clutch), utility vane and piercer, equipment and shafted weapon.

55. Flying fire, swift-flyer, grass-stalk and lancet, mention will be made of finder and Gusi's smithing, Jólf’s smithings there are, but the last word is whizzer.

A Bow

56. Elm, arc, bow, yew and double-wood, switch, glaring and noisy, honorable, scooped-clanger. And I speak the names also of all weapons collectively: iron, shaft and striker, steel and spear.

A Shield

57. Shield, the beset man’s hall, protector, hall-binder, bender, lee-edge8 and buckler, hand-staff, targe, wind-horse and shelter, wide-pale, etched thing, battle-blithe and linden.

58. Resounding, dew-scraper and gem-shelterer, battle-light, stony and battle-shelter, cooled and board, defiled, border, little stern, beaky, sheer, double boarded, battler and roarer, everlasting, shining, ring, fair-dark, carried, middle-protector.

A Helmet

59. I shall tell the terms for Hropt’s hood: helmet, gold-pale, cover, slaughter-rimy, stone-rimy, hollowed and shelterer, life-protector, fine-looker and eager-brown Hildigöltr (battle-boar), casque, battle-crest and warmer, cowl, frightener, shining, dome.

A Mailshirt

60. Byrnie, arriver, helmet-ringer, sark and close, cold one, Finnsleif (Finn's legacy), fare-to-battle, hold-fast, hindrance9 and blood-toy.

The Sea

61. Sea, ever-lying, salt, Ægir (ocean), waters, wetness, briny, calm waters, dead calm and wave, resounding, high sea, main, murmurer, rocker and mere, sucking, pounding surf, same, whirlpool, stream and fjord.

62. Sound, inlet, fair faring, far-sounding and wide expanse, tempest, home of fishes, breaker, dusky, flood and surf, swell, dazzler, Gymir (engulfer) and flower, rumbling and restless, surge, pool, snatcher.

63. Crashing, wake, league, fishing ground, tidal bay and fishing bank, water, deep and plunge, bay, tarn and ditch, tumult, canal, trout-hole, stream, rivulet and beck, channel, well, wellspring, eddy, torrent and firth.

64. Hefring10 (heaving), roller, whitecap and shoals, Hrönn (casting-up wave), Rán (plunderer), Kölga (cold one) and Himinglæva (heaven-gleam), Dröfn (comber), Uðr (wave) and sweller, Dúfa (deep), Bylgja (billow), shoal-breaker and wind-wave, Blóðughadda (bloody-haired).

Rivers

65. Gjöll* (noisy), Glit (glitter), Gera (greedy), Glóð (glowing) and Valskjálf (carrion shelf) Ván (hope), Víð* (wide), Vimur, Ving (meadow?) and Ouse, Síð (low), South, Freka (demanding), Sækin (pushy), Einstika (lone-progressing) Elbe, Rye, Oykill, Ekin (driven), Rennandi (running).

66. Tyne*,11 Rhine and Nith, Thuil, Rimr (rime?), Ysja (bustler), Don, Ógn (water), Dýna (bog), Dyn (thunderer), Höllfara (slopping course), Órun and Brora, Auðskjálg (easily crossed), Ludd, Mun (delight), Merkriða (remarkably shaking), Mein, Saxon Elbe.

67. Tiber, Durn (sluggish), Dvina, Thames, Vönd (difficult) and Strand, Marne, Móða (broads), Þrym (noise), Morn (murrain) and Gotha-Elbe, Alne, Uðr (wave), Ólga (swell) and Euphrates, Ógn (dread), Eiðrennir (isthmus-runner) and Aberdeen.

68. Rögn, Hrönn (wave) and Raun (test), Raum-Elbe, Hnipul (drooper), Hnöpul, Hjálmunlá (helm-shoal), Humber, Dvina, Vil (trouble), Vín (wine), Vella (welling), Valin (respectable?), Semð, Salin (salty?), Dneipr, Drammen, Strauma (torrent), Nissan, Mynt (mouthed), Gnapa (jutting).

69. Gilling (resounding) and Nile, Ganges, Tweed, Luma, Vervaða, Loire and Gunnþró* (battle trough), Iðsvöl* (ever-cold),12 Vegsvinn (way-swift)*, Yn, Þjóðmuna*,13 Fjörm* (hurrying), Strand and Spey, and Fimbulþul* (great roaring).

70. Nyt (milk), Hrönn (wave) and Nauð, Nöt (wet), Slíðr* (punishment) and Hríð* (snow-storm), Körmt, Leiftr* (lightning) and Armet, the two Kerlaugs (baths), Gömul (old), Sylgr* (swallower) and Inn and Geirvimul (spear-swarming), Ylgr* (she-wolf), Vöð (ford) and Flóð (flood), the Jordan comes last.

Fish

71. Salmon and ling hake, cusk, sea-trout, milter salmon, perch and kelt, lobster, lumpsucker, milter, halibut, mackerel, salmon-trout and gurnard.14

72. Silt, pollock, skate, herring, brown trout and redfish, codfish and houting, carp, flounder, fluke, sturgeon and sea-scorpion, mackerel shark, catfish and Greenland shark.

73. Sea dragon, miller's thumb and prawn, lobster,15 sand-flounder and gar pike, sea scorpion, turbot and rock crab, sillung-trout, shellfish, swordfish and pollack.

74. Codling, coal-fish, cod, strap-fish, groundling, pike, gill-fish, long cod, eel and carp, crab, garfish, dogfish and moonfish, minnow, sea-urchin.

Whales

75. Buck-whale, pike-whale and dugong, dolphin, sea-monster and porpoises, ruddy whale, ruddy whale calf, sperm whale, walrus and nordcaper.

76. Greenland whale, cow-whale, narwhal and pilot whale, humpback, fin-whale and jut-whale, bowhead whale, orca and sei whale, horse-whale, bottlenose whale, minke whale and grampus.

A Ship

77. Now I will expound on heiti for ships: ark, oar-clutch, ash, Sessrúmnir (roomy-seated),16 racing warship, cutter, ship and Skíðblaðnir,17 nave, Naglfari,18 rowboat, smack.

78. Freighter, merchant ship, bow-cold and reindeer, ridgeback, thole-strap-fixed hoary-prow, cruiser, boat and pinnace, brig, Hringhorni (ringhorn), 19 craft, keel, longship, Leifnir,20 galley.

79. Ring, Gnóð, Freki (greedy), fast, Móðrói (mind-stillness), thole-strapped, beaked and deep-beater, owl, lighter and ash-wittol, skiff, long-boat, cat-boat, conveyance and canoe. 21

80. Knarr, cog, knuckleboat, coble, dug-out, dragonship, Elliði (high-poop), warship and scow, fir, steed, galiot, ferry, punt, swiftflyer, flyer and delight, frequent-traveler and host-carrier.

81. Sail, planks, mast, hold-fast, helm, clenching, seaming, clinching and sheet-rope, stay, stem, steerage ropes, studdle and buntline, pennant and black-strakes, bench, stern and cable.

82. Bow-rails, shrouds, reefing-rope and sheets, spikes, mast-tree, seam, poop-supports, leek, mast-head, line, ears, vane, vane’s tail and plug.

83. Mast-knob, halyard-hole and tiller, hull, bow, fifth plank and hawse-stem, buntlines, hawse, pulleys and stays, tholes, heel, hammer, help-rope and leech-line.

84. Yard, sailyard ring, reef, rib and thole-straps, windlass, poop, wand, rowlocks, winch, tacking-boom, bulwark, prow and poop brands, transoms, bow-line, bulkheads.

85. Prow, knee, boarding, belt and bows, keel-board, mast-wedge and garboard, bollards, carling, clews and thwarts, rigging, gunwhales, cleats and deck-planks.

86. Guys, halyards, siphon, oars, sail-braces, clinch-plates, bridge and pins, sand-strake, keel-heel and anchor, anchor-buoy, bailer and crow's nest.

The Earth

87. Earth, landscape, glebe, marl and Hlöðyn, humus, Sif, Fjörgyn, ground, fundament and orb, field, garden and Fife, homeplace, country and coast, land, soil, march, locale and marsh.

88. Holt, ridge and fell, mountainside and hill, knoll, heath and combe, hillock and slope, crust, dale and wold, vale and peninsula, mold, underturf, hog's-back, moor, hollow and sand.

89. Now I shall tell the terms for oxen: Árvak (early-waking), bellower and Jörmunrekr, neat, Freyr, Reginn, smith, island-driller, red and driven and dark-sided, fighter, gorer, Vingnir, steerer.

90. Himinhrjóðr (heaven-reaver), cattle and hard-farer, Hæfir (hooved), stout one, roarer, stot, beeve, short-horn and color, Hliðr (storm),22 draft-ox, Arfr (inheritance), Jörmuni23 and mighty smith.

91. Spark, Apli (dapple), gold-horn, riches, young bullock, old bull and Arfuni (heir), bull, stormer, yeller, noise and membered, stud-bull, steer, taurus, mud-given.

A Cow

92. A cow is called heifer, she-calf and coquette24 and Auðhumbla, she is the first of cows.

A Ram

93. Ram, exceeding-horned one, horn-squealer, Gumarr,25 glowing-horn and payment-wretch, teg, white-horn, Hallinskíði,26 simple one, horn-wretch and Heimdali, bleater, middling, he-sheep,27 marten28 and wether.

A Goat

94. A goat is called Grímnir29 and Geirölnir, Tanngnjóstr,30 chopper and Tanngrisnir, billygoat and he-goat, buck, Grímr31 [is] mentioned. It's also called Heiðrún, nanny-goat and kidling, coalmouth and kid are the same.

A Bear

95. Bear, bruin, mighty one, she-bear, elk-opponent blue-molar, icewolf and broad-farer, haltered, teddy,32 growler, leopard,33 rough, greedy, robber, Jórekr, Mösni, forest-traveler, cub, snarler, Vetrliði (winter-survivor), greedy-tooth, noisy-ass,34 hooded one, shriveled-gut.

A Hart

96. Hart, Dyraþrór, Hliðr (storm), Eikþyrnir, Duneyrr, Dáinn, Dvalarr, moor-treader.

A Hog

97. Hog, slaughter-shiner, suckling and Hrímnir, swine-tarr, boar, Sæhrímnir, barrow-hog, pig,35 slaughter-bear, ridge, dirt-treader, thriver, warrior, piggy, barrow, Vaningi.36

A Wolf

98. Varg, wolf, Geri, watcher, grey-beast, Hati,37 Hróðvitnir and heathdweller, Freki and forest-dweller, Fenrir, leopard,38 Goth,39 worthy, noisemaker, howler, fighter, dusky and dreadful and swarthy-cheeked.

99. And [she] is called thus: she-wolf, she-varg, barker and grey-girl, ... lightheadedness.

Heavens

100. Nine are there heavens named on high. I know the lowest, that is Vindbláinn (wind-dark), that is Heiðþyrnir (the welkin) and Hregg-Mímir (storm-Mímir), the second is called Andlangr (extended) Heaven, that you may understand, the third Víðbláinn (wide-dark), Víðfeðmi (wide-embracer) I say to be the fourth, Hrjóðr (coverer) and Hlýrni (twilighted) I believe the sixth, Gimir (fiery or jeweled), Vetmímir (winter-Mímir), I guess now there are eight heavens recounted, Skattyrnir (rich-wetter) stands above the clouds, it is outside all the worlds.

The Sun

101. Sól and sun, shine, fair disk, lightning, cover, plaything,40 healing light, disk,41 lightning, doubt-disk and light-bringer, driving, elf-glory and Dvalin’s plaything.


[1. Ilmr or Hilmr is a word that means “a sweet smell”

2. nauð, as in the rune nauðiz. The word is also used in ON for bondage and childbirth.

3. Cleasby and Vigfusson vacillate on whether kefsar is cognate with German Kebsmann, "loverboy."

4. reading ok for om

5. Possibly verr, úlfr should be amended to verrúlfr, "man-wolf."

6. blær also appears as one of the terms for a ram.

7. Efzt can mean either "highest" or "last" - like ultimate. The same in the last line of verse 55. But presumably in verse 22, applied to Loki, it just means "last."

8. hlébarðr; also the word for leopard; see also verses 95, 98.

9. Sýn is also a goddess' name.

10. Rán is also a goddess’ name; Hefring, Hrönn (also in verse 59), Kólga, Himinglæva, Dröfn, Uðr, Dúfa, Bylgja, and Blóðughadda are also the names of her and Ægir's (or the giant Hlér's) 9 daughters.

11. One of the rivers that come out of the Elivögur. Also 10 others, all indicated by asterisks. Gunnþró is likely Gunnthrá and Iðsvöl is likely Svöl.

12. Or Víðsvöl, "wide-cold."

13. Or Þjóðnuma, "great container."

14. Andvari is also the name of the dwarf who curses the gold.

15. Following Cleasby-Vigfusson in seeing hamerr as error for humerr.

16. Askr is also the name of the first man (Gylfaginning 9), and Sessrúmnir of Freyja’s hall (Gylfaginning 24).

17. Freyr’s ship.

18. The ship that brings the Sons of Múspell at Ragnarök.

19. Baldr’s ship.

20. A sea-king’s name – see verse 4.

21. Also means a leather sheath, so presumably a skin canoe.

22. Hliðr also occurs in verse 96 for a hart.

23. usually referenced as Jörmunr; also a name of Óðinn.

24. skirja means “cow” but also “romping lass”; frenja in compounds means “hoyden”; clearly a different way of looking at cows from what we are used to.

25. Uncertain meaning - gumar = men.

26. Also a name of Heimdallr; see also Heimdali below.

27. blær also means “air” or “breeze” and appears among the terms for a sword.

28. Mörðr is generally held to be put here in error, since Iceland does not have martens.

29. “Hooded” or “Shadowed” – a name of Óðinn.

30. Tanngnjóstr and Tanngrisnir (Toothgnasher and Toothgrinder) are Thor’s goats.

31. “Cowled”- also a name of Óðinn.

32. Bossi looks to be a diminutive, so I have used the modern one.

33. Hlébarðr “used indiscriminately of a bear, wolf, etc.” Cleasby-Vigfusson. See also verses 57, 98.

34. Going by the two parts of the word in Cleasby-Vigfusson, this should be noisy-twat. Jálfaðr, father of din, i.e. battle, is a name of Óðinn.

35. Taking rái as ráði.

36. A name of Freyr - Vaning, Vanir-child.

37. The wolf that runs before the sun; the name means Shunner.

38. hlébarðr; see also verses 57 and 95.

39. Goti is listed in the Lexicon Poeticum as a term for a horse.

40. Or reading hrjóðrleika following Cleasby-Vigfusson: heavenly plaything. Hrjóðr appears in the preceding verse as one of the heavens.

41. Röðull can also be translated "glory," here and in the compounds in lines 5 and 7.]